Alternate PDF Format (10 pages, 423 KB): 2016-274-guide_domainmap2-eng.pdf
OBJECTIVE: TO CLARIFY WHAT IS IN (AND WHAT IS OUT OF) THE SCOPE OF A FORESIGHT STUDY.
This is the second exercise of two for developing a domain map, a simple representation of a system. It helps participants develop a shared mental model of their subject and delineate the boundaries of their study. In about 40 minutes, a group of up to 25 participants can take a complex topic and turn it into a simple domain map using the affinity mapping process outlined below.
- 1 facilitator
- 25 participants
- 1-2 assistants (optional)
- Large sticky notes in one colour (estimate 6 per person)
- Large sticky notes in a second colour (about 30 total)
- Large sticky notes in a third colour (about 10 total)
- Large sticky notes in a fourth colour (about 5 total)
- 1 fine-tip marker per participant
- Projector/computer, internet connection (optional)
Post on the wall
- A visual agenda (optional)
- Rules of engagement (optional)
- 2 headings on sticky notes (optional): What worked? What could be better?
A large room with a large wall to collect and rearrange sticky notes. The room should be spacious enough for participants to comfortably step back to review the wall and easily approach it to arrange sticky notes.
|5 MIN||1. General meeting instructions (if needed)|
2. Give context for the domain map exercise (3 minutes)
|10 MIN||7. Reflect on and/or evaluate the exercise (10 minutes)|
EST. TOTAL TIME: 50 minutes
BEFORE THE MEETING: WHAT KIND OF DOMAIN MAP PROCESS DO YOU NEED?
This domain map exercise uses affinity mapping, a method of making sense of brainstormed information by clustering according to theme. In the affinity mapping approach, participants generate many possible system elements by brainstorming, and then classify those elements under organically emerging headings and hierarchies. In a short time, this exercise can turn a complex subject (e.g. 80 elements) into a simple picture of about eight major headings.
It is especially useful when the domain includes many elements that are not easily organized. For instance, for Horizon’s Future of Asia study, participants on the Social team defined the “Social Asia” domain (a broad, nebulous subject) using this clustering method (see example below). If project participants are expected to hold varied understandings of the domain, this exercise is also a good way to resolve those differences through discussion. On the other hand, if the domain is not too broad and project participants are likely to share a similar understanding of the domain and/or there are existing domain frameworks to draw upon, then domain mapping exercise #1 may be a better approach. It has participants draw a domain map starting with major headings rather than many small elements.
Example: Affinity-mapping the “Social Asia” domain
Summary: Image description
This figure is entitled “affinity-mapping the social Asia domain". It is a photograph of a series of sticky notes on a wall forming a domain map.
Build your own domain map
It is a good idea for the facilitator to prepare a preliminary domain map on the chosen topic before the workshop, for their “back pocket.” This helps the facilitator to anticipate what topics are likely to arise and what challenges participants may encounter.
Prepare the room for the activity
- Participants can stand during this domain map activity; however, they may need seating if the systems map presentation will be delivered first.
- Each participant will need a few large sticky notes (4–5 of a single colour) and a fine-tip marker. Participants will need to be able to stand back and easily read a wall of these post-it notes, each with 2–4 words written on them. Ensure there are extra sticky notes of the same colour in the room.
- A smaller number of post-it notes in a second, third and fourth colour will be needed for participants to cluster and tier categories. Consider having an extra person or two to help distribute post-it notes to participants. Post in the room any visual aids that will be referred to during the meeting.
|5 min||1. General meeting introductions (if needed)
2. Give context for the domain map exercise
3. Provide activity instructions
4. Generate elements of the domain
5. Cluster related elements into categories
6. Review the domain map
7. Reflect on and/or evaluate the exercise
Add-ons/Modifications to the domain map exercise
OPTION A: After developing the map, get an early sense of the most important elements through voting
After generating domain maps, it is often helpful to evaluate which elements are the most critical for considering plausible futures of the system . This provides an idea of where participants might want to focus their attention, for example when scanning. At a later stage in the process, the facilitation team will need to decide which elements (tip sheet) will be used for scenario development. This optional activity does not answer that question, but it generates early insight that may inform it.
A short voting activity could be added at the end of the group mapping activity. In that case, give each participant 3–5 votes (they can use a marker or dot stickers) to distribute among the elements on the map as they wish. To determine importance, the questions to consider are:
- Which elements do participants expect to change the most?
- Which elements would be most disruptive for policy, should they change significantly?
After voting, the facilitator can briefly highlight a few of the most popular elements and remind participants that these are good topics to monitor when looking for signs of disruptive change affecting the system. Participants also may want to divide up responsibility for scanning by element.
Building a Foresight Workshop: Complementary Activities to Consider
For facilitators with multiple objectives for a foresight workshop, below are a few suggestions for activities that would pair well with a domain map exercise.
Before the exercise
- Deliver the Systems Mapping presentation.
After the exercise
- To emphasize the domain mapping exercise as a learning experience, consider sharing and discussing the facilitator’s “back pocket” domain map. (You may need a projector, internet access etc. arranged ahead to display your map). How did you:
- create the map (Google Docs, Post-its, Insightmaker, Visio, Simplemind, Mind42, etc.);
- choose the elements;
- Develop a polished version of the domain map. Print a large format, colour copy of the map. It is useful to be able to refer back to the map in subsequent sessions. Refer to the tip sheet on how to select elements for a final domain map.
- Deliver the system mapping exercise (module 4).
- Deliver the assumptions exercise (module 2).